Fish 7: Fish Balls (魚圓)

Use either a live redfin culter or black carp, split the fish in half, and nail it to a board. Use a knife and scrap off the meat, leaving the bones and spine on the board. Chop the meat until fine, mix with lard and bean starch,1 then stir the mixture with one’s hand. Add a little salt water, but do not use light soy sauce. Add green onion and ginger juice, and form the mixture into balls. When this is done, place them in boiling water to cook. Scoop them out when done, and let them rest in a bath of cold water.2 When they are ready to be served, boil them with chicken broth and laver.3

魚圓
用白魚、青魚活者剖半釘板上,用刀刮下肉,留刺在板上;將肉斬化,用豆粉、豬油拌,將手攪之;放微微鹽水,不用清醬,加蔥、薑汁作團,成後,放滾水中煮熟撩起,冷水養之,臨吃入雞湯、紫菜滾。

Notes:
1 I’m still wondering if “豆粉” (doufen) is bean starch or bean vermicelli, since both can be used in fish balls. The ambiguity stems from the fact that 粉 (fen) can either be used to mean starch, or one of the many Chinese pasta products made from starch. I’m going with the former since it’s a more common ingredient when making fish balls.

2 This is a very accurate and detailed description of the fish-ball-making process. Definitely one of the better recipes noted-down by Yuan Mei.

3 The laver described here is a type of red algae likely from Genus Porphyra

Birds 42: Wild Duck Meatballs (野鴨團)

“Chop the wild duck breast finely, add pork fat and a small amount of starch. Form the mixture into balls,and boil them in chicken broth. It is even better to use the original duck’s broth instead. The household of Kongqin from Daxing makes this exceptionally well.”

野鴨團
細斬野鴨胸前肉,加豬油微縴,調揉成團,入雞湯滾之。或用本鴨湯亦佳。大興孔親家制之甚精。

Meatballs made from duck breasts cooked in broth. Sounds quite good actually.

Birds 35: Steamed Duck (蒸鴨)

“Remove the bones from a raw fat duck. Stuff the duck’s body cavity with a mix consisting of one wine cup of glutinous rice, diced dried-cured ham, diced kohlrabi,[1] shitake, diced bamboo shoots, autumn sauce, wine, warm-pressed sesame oil,[2] and chopped green onions. Place the duck on a plate and ladle chicken broth on it. Steam the duck, separated from the water, and do so until it is thoroughly cooked. This recipe definitely comes from the household of Prefect Wei.”

蒸鴨

生肥鴨去骨,內用糯米一酒杯,火腿丁、大頭菜丁、香蕈、筍丁、秋油、酒、小磨麻油、蔥花,俱灌鴨肚內,外用雞湯放盤中,隔水蒸透。此真定魏太守家法也。

jisaku_kaiseki_ryori_01
There is supposedly steamed duck in this picture. I think it’s those two slices of pink flesh on the boat-shaped glass dish in the center. (Credit: Chris)

 

Not much to say about this other that the fact that this would have been quite an opulent dish back in the day. This would be be served in celebratory meals much like a roast turkey would be served in North American Thanskgiving and Christmas day.  Come to think of it, the stuffing described here could be used directly for turkey too.

Now, to fill-up some space here are some translation notes:

Translation notes:
[1]: In modern usage, datoucai (大頭菜) can be one of three vegetable items, all produced from the mustards of genus Brassica: Kohlrabi, the stem of the tatsai (Brassica juncea subsp. tatsai), or turnip. Of the three, the first two are stems while the latter is a root. It’s hard to figure out which of these are the vegetable selected so I’m going with the kolrabi since it’s the most common modern usage. Still, tatsai is native to China so it would be a strong contender.

[2]: Xiaomo Mayou (小磨麻油) is a warm pressed white sesame oil using hot water to separate out the oil instead of the typical hot roasting and hydraulic pressing. A more gentle sesame taste, than the typical sesame oil.

Birds 24: Chicken blood (雞血)

“Cut coagulated chicken blood into strips and cook them with chicken broth, soy sauce, vinegar, and starch powder to make a geng. This dish is well suited for the elderly.”

雞血
取雞血為條,加雞湯、醬、醋、芡粉作羹,宜於老人。

chickenrbc1000x
Alien looking nucleated chicken blood (Credit: John Alan Elson)

Blood is generally good for the anemic since it is high in bioavailable iron. This makes it probably beneficial to many elderly  or anyone of weaker constitution, who are susceptible to the condition. The fact that chicken red blood cells are nucleated also means that you get more nucleic acids than regular blood, which probably doesn’t hurt either if you are already eating it.

Assorted Livestock 12: Two Ways of Preparing Deer Tendon (鹿筋二法)

“Deer tendon does not soften easily. For the first three days of preparations, one must pound and boil the tendons several times, while continually wringing out any foul-smelling juices from within it. Next, braise the deer tendon in pork broth and then after that braise it in chicken broth. Add autumn sauce, wine, and starch to thicken and reduce the cooking liquid.

The tendon can be served as-is as a white-cooked dish without addition of anything else. They can also be braised together with ham, winter bamboo shoots, and shitake until they take on a reddish hue and then served in a bowl without reduction. To finish the white-cooked dish, sprinkle it with finely ground Szechuan pepper.”

雜牲單::鹿筋二法
鹿筋難爛。須三日前,先捶煮之,絞出臊水數遍,加肉汁湯煨之,再用雞汁湯煨;加秋油、酒,芡收湯;不攙他物,便成白色,用盤盛之。如兼用火腿、冬筍、香蕈同煨,便成紅色,不收湯,以碗盛之。白色者加花椒細末。

A simple and tasty plate of wonton noodles with braised beef tendons. (Credit: Shizao)

While I buy beef tendon and eat it often enough, I have never had deer tendon. And unless I have to chance to go deer hunting one of these days, I highly doubt I will. Coming at more than $100CAD per kg in dried form, deer tendon is not exactly cheap especially considering that beef tendon is usually much less than a tenth of the price. Truth is, if their texture and flavours are anywhere similar to one other, I’m not sure why I would pay anything close to eat the former.

Regardless, this recipe is still rather informative since it shows one how to reconstitute and process dried deer tendon, at least in the way the people in Qing Dynasty did it. The technique is the same as most dried texture foods used in Chinese cuisine (like sharks fin or sea cucumber) but with more pounding and wringing. Basically, you are trying to purge the ingredients of all its original smells and tastes, fill it with the flavours of a good meat broth, and then use in your recipe.

The two methods of preparing deer tendon described here probably works well enough for fresh pork and beef tendon. That said they still probably cannot beat a plate of mala tendon (麻辣牛筋).

Assorted Livestock 5: Mutton Geng (羊羹)

Take some cooked mutton and cut it into small pieces the size of dice. Braise the meat in chicken broth. Add diced bamboo shoots, diced shitake mushrooms, and diced mountain yam then braise until done.

雜牲單::羊羹
取熟羊肉斬小塊,如骰子大。雞湯煨,加筍丁、香蕈丁、山藥丁同煨。

It’s 羊羹, but it’s not the same 羊羹. (Credit: me)

I love geng. The thick texture, rich umami flavours, and the delicateness of its broth makes geng one of the most comforting things one can have for dinner during a cold autumn evening or frigid winter night. It’s a silk comforter in soup form.

The thick texture of geng is conferred through the addition of a starch, such as potato, corn, or arrowroot starch. These starches give the otherwise texture-less broth a silky body, which stays in the mouth and feels somehow more “weighty”. They make the liquid broth much more substantial, while maintaining the broth’s clarity. In this regard, all thick textured Chinese soups are technically geng since they consists of ingredients in clear broth given substance through added starch. While this recipe does not call for starch explicitly, it may simply be that it’s assumed to be added or more likely that mountain yam (known to be quite mucilaginous) provides the thickening during braising.

Geng is sometimes translated as “stew” or “thick soup”, but I feel both are inadequate since they allude to the stogy opaqueness of dishes thickened by flour and roux. The clear delicateness of a geng’s thickened broth is mostly lost in such translations. Just as very few refer to tofu as “bead curd”, and sushi as “seaweed roll”, geng should not be called anything but “geng”.

That aside, it is interesting to note that mutton geng is now rarely called “yang geng” (羊羹) but rather “yang rou geng” (羊肉羹, lit. sheep meat geng). The addition rou (肉, meat) is required since when someone uses “羊羹” they are usually talking about a Japanese Yōkan, a sugary bean jelly that is largely unrelated to mutton geng except for its culinary ancestry. A summary of how this came about is as follows: A mutton geng made with gelatinous broth becomes an aspic when chilled and was eaten this form in Ancient China. Then Medieval Chinese vegetarians Buddhists who moved from China to Japan replaced the meat with bean pastes and starch. Then the medieval Japanese replaced starch with agar and added sugar into the mix, which turned everything super sweet. And that my friends, was how “羊羹” went from a savoury meaty soup to become a sweet sugary block of firm bean jelly.

Pork 21: Furong Pork (芙蓉肉)

持牲單::芙蓉肉
精肉一斤,切片,清醬拖過,風乾一個時辰。用大蝦肉四十個,豬油二兩,切骰子大,將蝦肉放在豬肉上。一隻蝦,一塊肉,敲扁,將滾水煮熟撩起。熬菜油半斤,將肉片放在眼銅勺內,將滾油灌熟。再用秋油半酒杯,酒一杯,雞湯一茶杯,熬滾,澆肉片上,加蒸粉、蔥、椒,糝上起鍋。

Furong is a type of Hibiscus, but the name is also used to describe irregularly shaped foods, as in the case of this recipe. (Credit: Shizhao)

Pork(List of the Ceremonial Animal)::Furong Pork[1]
Slice one jin of lean pork, dip each of the slices in light soy sauce, and let them dry in open air for two hours. Shell forty large shrimp and cut two liang of whole lard into small dice. Place one whole shrimp and a piece of lard on each slice of pork and pound the shrimp and lard flat onto the pork. Place the pork in boiling water to cook through. [2]

Heat half a jin of vegetable oil, place the pieces of pork onto a large skimming spoon, and ladle hot oil over them until done. Bring to boil half a wine-cup of autumn sauce, one cup of wine, and half a tea-cup of chicken broth, and pour on top of the pork. Finish by adding steamed rice noodles [3], green onion, and Szechuan pepper to the pork before serving.

Random notes:
[1]: This is same “furong” as “fu-young” in egg fu young. In Chinese cuisine, the name of this complex-looking hibiscus flower is given to irregularly shaped foods or egg-based dishes. In Northern China, egg-based foods are almost almost always called “furong”-something.

[2]: The steps here as described in this first part by Yuan Mei are pretty vague and incomplete, and required me to look up a few contemporary recipes to piece things together. Basically, it’s a translation with a few bits added here and there to make things make sense.

[3]: Zhengfen (蒸粉) should be a type of steamed rice noodle, it seems rather strange to use it in a Chinese dish in such a manner that I’m wondering whether I got this wrong.