Vegetable Dishes 23: Bok Choy

Bok Choy1 can be stir-fried, or braised with bamboo shoots. It can also be braised together with slices of dried-cured ham or chicken broth.

白菜
白菜炒食,或筍煨亦可。火腿片煨、雞湯煨俱可。

Notes:
1 The names for the Chinese mustards are a fantastic mess be it in English or Chinese. When people people nowadays refer to baicai(白菜), they usually mean the “大白菜”, or Napa cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis), which in the Suiyuan Shidan is referred to as huangyacai (黃芽菜). The “baicai” referred to here is probably a mustard with the green leaves and thick white stalks related to the Napa cabbage, and similar to what is commonly sold in North America under the name “bok choy” (B. rapa subsp. chinensis), hence the translation. Of course this assumes that the braising described in the recipe is short (a few minutes) since longer braising (>10 minutes) is usually done with chinenesis

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Vegetable Dishes 21: Green Vegetables

Green vegetables that are tender can be stir-fried with bamboo shoots. During the summer, dress it with ground mustard and a little vinegar to awaken one’s appetite. One can make a soup with it using dried-cured ham. One must look for those that have been freshly picked to ensure that they will be soft and tender.

青菜1
青菜擇嫩者,筍炒之。夏日芥末拌,加微醋,可以醒胃。加火腿片,可以作湯。亦須現拔者才軟。

Notes:
1Qingcai (青菜) means literally “greenish-blue vegetable” and is used to describe a wide variety of different greenish vegetables, typically mustards (like Brassica rapa). The term is sometimes translated to “Chinese cabbage” or “Bok Choy”, but I went with the direct translation since these English names tend to be rather inaccurate. Besides, most of these qingcai plant varieties do not have good or consistent names in English. Come to think of it, the rather colloquial English term for vegetables: “greens“, may actually be a better translation than the more typical ones.

Vegetable Dishes 8: Frozen Tofu

Freeze tofu for one night, cut into square pieces, and boil them to rid them of their bean-like smell. Add them to a mixture of chicken broth and extracts, ham extract, and pork extract and braise. When serving, remove the chicken and ham and the like, leaving only the shitake and the winter bamboo shoots.

When tofu has been braised for a long time its texture becomes spongy, with its surface becoming honey-combed like frozen tofu.1 For stir-frying use soft tofu, while braising should be done with firmer tofu.2 The household of Officer Jia Zhihua cooks tofu with mushrooms, even during the summer they follow the same recipe for frozen tofu, since it is very good. Do not use strong flavoured hun meat broths3 for this dish since doing so would destroy to delicate light flavours of this dish.

凍豆腐
將豆腐凍一夜,切方塊,滾去豆味,加雞湯汁、火腿汁、肉汁煨之。上桌時,撤去雞、火腿之類,單留香蕈、冬筍。豆腐煨久則鬆,面起蜂窩,如凍腐矣。故炒腐宜嫩,煨者宜老。家致華分司用蘑菇煮豆腐,雖夏月亦照凍腐之法,甚佳。切不可加葷湯,致失清味。

Notes:
1I think Yuan Mei is trying to say normal tofu looking like frozen tofu after prolonged boiling.

2This feels slightly off on a tangent, and may not apply exclusively to frozen tofu. In fact, the rest of the paragraph goes on a tangent.

3Though the term hun 葷 (pronounced hoon) is commonly used to refer to any meat from any animal, this is clearly not the meaning here. When Yuan Mei say’s “葷湯”, or “hun soup”, he is not saying “animal broth” since there is already chicken and ham used to make this dish. Most likely he is referring to the stronger and richer tasting pork, and possibly beef broth, thus I translating it as such. It seems that every “vegetable” dish here is full of animal ingredients. This is still true for most Chinese vegetable dishes where lard and broth (or MSG) are “musts”.

Vegetable Dishes 6: Prefect Wang’s Babao Tofu

Take tender tofu, then slice and cut it until thoroughly pulverized. Add to it pulverized1 shitake, pulverized mushrooms, pulverized pine nuts, pulverized melon seeds, pulverized chicken, and pulverized dried-cured ham. Put everything into concentrated chicken extract, and boil2 the mixture until boiling, then plate and serve.3 One can also used douhua in place of the tofu. Eat this with a spoon and not with chopsticks.

Prefect Meng Ting recounted: “The recipe for this dish was bestowed by the Sagely Forefather4 to Minister Jian An. When the Minister went to acquire the recipe, the Imperial kitchens charged him one thousand taels of silver.”5 The Prefect’s ancestor was Master Lou Cun, who was born to the aformentioned Minister, which is how he got the recipe.

王太守八寶6豆腐
用嫩片切粉碎,加香蕈屑、蘑菇屑、松子仁屑、瓜子仁屑、雞屑、火腿屑,同入濃雞汁中炒滾起鍋。用腐腦亦可。用瓢不用箸。孟亭太守云︰﹁此聖祖賜徐健庵尚書方也。尚書取方時,御膳房費一千兩。﹂太守之祖樓村先生為尚書門生,故得之。

Notes:
1I have translated xue 屑 as pulverized, which is not the best or most accurate translation. However, I feel it’s better than calling it “bits” or “crumbs”, since they have the same meaning of even fineness that one get by cutting in an orderly manner. The term “dice” would give the “orderly cut” meaning, but even if one said “dice finely” one still cannot describe the fineness required, thus we have “pulverized” until something better comes along.

2The actual term used here is chaogun 炒滾, which literally means “stir-fry until boiling”. Basically you boil this thick mixture at high heat and stir continuously, just like you are stir-frying food.

3This feels like a more tedious version of wensidofu 文思豆腐). While Wensi needs everything to be cut into fine threads, this require another set of cuts to “dice” all the ingredients into bits around <1mm cubed.

4The Qing Dynasty Sagely Forefather/Saintly Ancestor 聖祖 is none other than Emperor Kangxi.

5A recipe from the Qing Imperial kitchens, all the way back around 300 years ago!

6Babao 八寶 means “eight-treasure”. While I could translate it as such, I think it cheapens this otherwise culturally rich phrase. If interested, the reader should go figure it out for themselves what it’s all about.

Fish 11: Icefish (銀魚)

When icefish1 are freshly caught from the water, they are known as “savoriness of ice”. Braise them in chicken broth with dried-cured ham. Alternatively, stir-fry them for a more tender fish. For the dried item, soak them in water until soft. They make a good dish when stir-fried with diluted soy sauce.2

銀魚
銀魚起水時,名冰鮮。加雞湯、火腿湯煨之。或炒食甚嫩。乾者泡軟,用醬水炒亦妙。

Notes:
1Although the direct translation of the Chinese name is the somewhat ambiguous “silver fish”, the fact that Yuan Mei indicates this fish looks like ice tells use that it is most likely Salanx prognathus or Salanx chinensis, one of the species among a genus of Asian “ice fish”. These fish are quite interesting in that the adults retain much of the features present in a fish’s larval or juvenile stages. They are small, translucent, largely cartilaginous, and look amazingly like whitebait (and sometimes mistaken as such). They are also sometimes known as “noodle fish” since its form and texture resemble the small thick rice noodles. It goes to show that when you think you’ve seen all the wonders of nature, nature throws living rice noodles your way.

2I’m not sure what is jiangshui (醬水), or “watered sauce”. Could it soysauce and water or diluted soysauce, or just liquid extracted from a wet bean sauce? Either way it’ll likely taste like the former, hence the translation.

Birds 35: Steamed Duck (蒸鴨)

“Remove the bones from a raw fat duck. Stuff the duck’s body cavity with a mix consisting of one wine cup of glutinous rice, diced dried-cured ham, diced kohlrabi,[1] shitake, diced bamboo shoots, autumn sauce, wine, warm-pressed sesame oil,[2] and chopped green onions. Place the duck on a plate and ladle chicken broth on it. Steam the duck, separated from the water, and do so until it is thoroughly cooked. This recipe definitely comes from the household of Prefect Wei.”

蒸鴨

生肥鴨去骨,內用糯米一酒杯,火腿丁、大頭菜丁、香蕈、筍丁、秋油、酒、小磨麻油、蔥花,俱灌鴨肚內,外用雞湯放盤中,隔水蒸透。此真定魏太守家法也。

jisaku_kaiseki_ryori_01
There is supposedly steamed duck in this picture. I think it’s those two slices of pink flesh on the boat-shaped glass dish in the center. (Credit: Chris)

 

Not much to say about this other that the fact that this would have been quite an opulent dish back in the day. This would be be served in celebratory meals much like a roast turkey would be served in North American Thanskgiving and Christmas day.  Come to think of it, the stuffing described here could be used directly for turkey too.

Now, to fill-up some space here are some translation notes:

Translation notes:
[1]: In modern usage, datoucai (大頭菜) can be one of three vegetable items, all produced from the mustards of genus Brassica: Kohlrabi, the stem of the tatsai (Brassica juncea subsp. tatsai), or turnip. Of the three, the first two are stems while the latter is a root. It’s hard to figure out which of these are the vegetable selected so I’m going with the kolrabi since it’s the most common modern usage. Still, tatsai is native to China so it would be a strong contender.

[2]: Xiaomo Mayou (小磨麻油) is a warm pressed white sesame oil using hot water to separate out the oil instead of the typical hot roasting and hydraulic pressing. A more gentle sesame taste, than the typical sesame oil.

Birds 32: Squab (鴿子)

“Squab braised with good dry-cured ham is excellent. One can also prepare it without the ham.”

鴿子
鴿子加好火腿同煨,甚佳。不用火腿亦可。

hk_aberdeen_e69db1e58b9de98193_tung_sing_road_e5be97e8a898e78792e88798e9a3afe5ba97_tak_kee_rice_restaurant_nov-2012_e4b9b3e9b4bfe88289_squab
Tasty soy braised squab, prepared in a manner similar to this recipe. (Credit: Tsengawinlim)

Basically one can use any of the birds in genus Columba, which includes all species of doves and pigeons. The word squab is used to refer to pigeons bred for food or used for food, though it typically also implies a younger and tenderer bird.