Vegetable Dishes 43: Indian Aster

Choose the tender tips of the Indian aster1 and serve then mixed with bamboo shoots and vinegar. This dish can be served to rouse one’s spleen2 after having greasy food.

馬蘭
馬蘭頭菜,摘取嫩者,醋合筍拌食。油膩後食之,可以醒脾。

Note:
1Malan (馬蘭) is the Indian Aster (Aster indica)
2This is from traditional Chinese medicine, where the belief is that the spleen acts to absorb the vital energies from consumed food.

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Vegetable Dishes 30: Two Ways of Preparing Eggplant

The household of instructor Wu Xiaoyen peels the skin off the eggplants1, soaks them in boiling water to rid them of their bitter taste, then sears them in rendered lard. When searing, one must to wait for the water used for soaking the eggplants to cook dry, then dry braise them in sweet soy sauce and water. This is exceptionally good. The household of Magistrate Liuba cuts their eggplant into small pieces without peeling the skin, fries them until slightly browned, and then stir-fry with autumn sauce in hot oil for a great dish.

I have learned these two recipes, yet I have yet to be able have success with them. Still, if one steams them until soft, then slice them open, and dress them with sesame oil and vinegar, one get a dish well suited for summer eating. They can also be braised until dry to make into jerky and served as-is on a dish.

茄二法
吳小谷廣文家,將整茄子削皮,滾水泡去苦汁,豬油炙之。炙時須待泡水乾後,用甜醬水乾煨,甚佳。盧八太爺家,切茄作小塊,不去皮,入油灼微黃,加秋油炮炒,亦佳。是二法者,俱學之而未盡其妙,惟蒸爛劃開,用麻油、米醋拌,則夏間亦頗可食。或煨乾作脯,置盤中。

Note:
1Peeled eggplant makes for a shockingly sensuous dish. Highly recommended.

Vegetable Dishes 24: Napa Cabbage

The best specimens of this vegetable comes from the North. Cook it seasoned with vinegar, or braise it1 with dried shrimp.2 Serve it immediately when done, any delay would change its colour and flavour for the worse.

黃芽菜
此菜以北方來者為佳。或用醋摟,或加蝦米煨之,一熟便吃,遲則色、味俱變。

Note:
1The question comes up of when this vegetable is supposed to be “done”. In Pork 42: Napa Cabbage Hearts Braised with Ham (黃芽菜煨火腿) Yuan Mei indicated that the cabbage in that recipe should be braised for half a day, so perhaps it’s the same here?

2This is my favourite way of cooking napa cabbage: braised with dried shrimp. This classic home-styled preparations for napa cabbage is known as Kaiyang napa cabbage (開陽白菜), and basically involves braising napa cabbage in water or broth for around 10 minutes with umami providing ingredients such as shitake mushrooms, dried shrimp, dried flounder, or dried ham.

Of all the braised napa cabbage dishes, one of the most famous has to be the mundane sounding “napa cabbage in boiled water” (開水白菜). When served, this atypical Szechuan dish looks exactly like what its name describes, basically, napa cabbage hearts in a tureen of clear water. However, the surprise comes when the soup is tasted. The “boiled water” is actually an exquisitely prepared consommé that is clear as water but rich and umami as a good Chinese superior broth (高湯). Despite its simple appearance, this dish is in fact one of the most flamboyantly wasteful and extravagant in all the Chinese cuisines. By the time you have sweated and prepared a tureen of this soup, you are left with a mountain of depleted remains from several chickens, ham, and egg whites used to create the broth, along with a large mound of outer napa cabbage leaves left over from extracting the heart. Expectantly, all the junzi-like scholars loved it.

Vegetable Dishes 21: Green Vegetables

Green vegetables that are tender can be stir-fried with bamboo shoots. During the summer, dress it with ground mustard and a little vinegar to awaken one’s appetite. One can make a soup with it using dried-cured ham. One must look for those that have been freshly picked to ensure that they will be soft and tender.

青菜1
青菜擇嫩者,筍炒之。夏日芥末拌,加微醋,可以醒胃。加火腿片,可以作湯。亦須現拔者才軟。

Notes:
1Qingcai (青菜) means literally “greenish-blue vegetable” and is used to describe a wide variety of different greenish vegetables, typically mustards (like Brassica rapa). The term is sometimes translated to “Chinese cabbage” or “Bok Choy”, but I went with the direct translation since these English names tend to be rather inaccurate. Besides, most of these qingcai plant varieties do not have good or consistent names in English. Come to think of it, the rather colloquial English term for vegetables: “greens“, may actually be a better translation than the more typical ones.

Vegetable Dishes 20: Jiaobai

Jiaobai1 can be stir-fried with pork or chicken. These shoots are very good when cut into pieces and grilled with soy-sauce and vinegar. They also very good when stir-fried over high heat with pork.2 Before cooking, the shoots must be sliced into inch long pieces for the best effect. The weak and thin shoots have no flavour.3

茭白
茭白炒肉、炒雞俱可。切整段,醬、醋炙之,尤佳。爆肉亦佳。須切片,以寸為度,初出瘦細者無味。

Notes:
1Jiaobai (茭白) or jiaobaisun (茭白筍), is actually the pithy ligule and sheaths of an aquatics grass related to American wildrice (Zizania latifolia) that has been infected by the fungus Ustilago esculenta, the latter of which is closely related to the corn smut fungus (I’ve always been impressed how English can make so many foods sound unappetizing). When the thick infected sheaths has been peeled like bamboo shoots, they reveal a firm creamy-white plump centre “shoot”. When stir fried, this shoot-like food is delectably crisp in texture, refreshingly sweet, and utterly delicious.

2Found in the 2nd last recipe in the next chapter for dried jiaobai.

3This either means that thin weak specimens are not tasty, or if you slice it too thin it won’t taste good. Most likely the former though likely true for either.

Vegetable Dishes 14: Stone Hair

The preparation is the same as pearl algae. During summer, it is especially good mixed with sesame oil, vinegar, and autumn sauce.

石髮1
制法與葛仙米同。夏日用麻油、醋、秋油拌之,亦佳。

Note:
1This is an algae Ulva compressa or Ulva intestinalis, found growing on the rocks and boulders on the sea side. I originally thought of this was another name for facai (髮菜, Nostoc flagelliforme) but in looking at a variety of ancient and old medical texts, we can see the ingredient is most likely that of genus Ulva.

Fish 10: Fish Embraced with Vinegar (醋摟魚)

Chop a live black crap into large pieces, sear the pieces in oil, then add soy sauce, vinegar, and spray with wine. The more broth in the dish the better. When it is done immediately remove everything from the pan. This dish is most famously prepared by Hangzhou West Lake’s Wuliuju.1 But ever since they started using an ill-smelling soy sauce, the fish served there is now inedible. What a pity!

The fame of Songsao Fish Geng2 is not warranted at all. The discussions in “Menglianglu” should also not be believed.3 The chosen fish must not be big, since the flavours will not penetrate into a big fish. The chosen fish must also not be small, since small fish tend to have more spiny bones.

醋摟魚
用活青魚切大塊,油灼之,加醬、醋、酒噴之,湯多為妙。俟熟即速起鍋。此物杭州西湖上五柳居最有名。而今則醬臭而魚敗矣。甚矣!宋嫂魚羹,徒存虛名。︽夢粱錄︾不足信也。魚不可大,大則味不入;不可小,小則刺多。

Notes:
1Wuliuju translates to the “house of five willows”
2The famed fish geng by Madamn Song, consists of fish in small pieces and cooked in a thick and rich soup punctuated by vinegar. I guess Yuan Mei did not think much of it.
3Menglianglu (夢粱錄), or “Records on Dreams of Millet” was written in Song Dynasty by Wu Zimu (吳自牧). As for what contents in the work were considered untrustworthy by Yuan Mei, I am not sure.