In the household of General1 Yang from Shandong, they prepare soft-shelled turtle by removing its head and tail, portioning off its meat and the turtle’s soft “skirt”2 to braise with seasonings, and then covering everything with the turtle shell.
At the banquet, each guest would be served a small plate each with a single turtle cooked in this manner. Those presented with the turtle would be completely startled by the its appearance,3 concerned if they had been served something still alive and moving. Sadly the method for the dish’s preparation is lost.
1Sanjiang (參將) is probably something like a major general. Perhaps.
2The “skirt” of the soft-shelled turtle is the flap of skin and flesh at the edge of the turtle’s skin covered shell.
3I wonder if the guest are startled because they are not used to seeing the turtle apparently whole and not pre-chopped into chopstick friendly pieces.
Boil a soft-shelled turtle in water, remove its bones, and tear the meat into pieces. Braise it in chicken broth, autumn sauce, and wine, reducing the liquid from two bowls until there is one bowl. Serve the soup, blending it with green onions, Szechuan pepper, and ground ginger. The household of Wu Zhuyu prepares this dish extremely well. Use a small amount of starch such that the prepared soup is sufficiently thick.
*Happy Canadian Thanksgiving all!
Chop a soft-shelled turtle into four pieces and stir-fry thoroughly in a hot wok. For every jin of the turtle, braise it with four liang of wine, three qian of star anise, and one and a half qian of salt until half done. Add two liang of rendered lard and chop the turtle into small dice before braising, adding garlic and bamboo shoot tips. Before plating add green onion and Szechuan pepper. One can add autumn sauce before plating, but never add salt. This is a recipe from the household of Tang Jinghan of Suzhou. Large soft-shelled turtle are tough and small ones smell fishy. Its best to buy one that is medium in size.
* This can be also called Ragoût de Tortue au sel de Guérande. Sounds more “refined”, for whatever reason.
Take a soft-shelled turtle weighing half a jin1 and chop it into four pieces. Add three liang of rendered lard to a heated wok and pan-fry the turtle so that the pieces are golden brown on both sides. Braise with water, autumn sauce, and wine, first with a hot flame then a gentle flame. Add garlic when the turtle is eighty percent done. Before plating add green onion, ginger, and sugar. When choosing soft-shelled turtles for this dish prefer smaller ones to larger ones. Only those small turtles colloquially known as “boy’s foot turtle” are sufficiently tender.
1 Around 300g in Yuan Mei’s time, or a bit more than half a pound
* The actual size of the turtle used in this recipe is probably quite a bit larger than the one shown in the picture. One with the required weight would probably be large enough to fit in the palm of an adult hand.
Par-boil a soft-shelled turtle,1 remove its bones, heat up a wok, and stir-fry over high heat. Add soy sauce, water, green onions, Szechuan pepper, reduce the cooking liquid to a sauce, and serve. This is a Hangzhou recipe.
1 Parboiling raw meat ingredients before stir-frying is de rigueur in Chinese cuisine especially if it tends to emit bloody liquids while cooking. Contrast the technique here with the previous recipe.
Remove the bones from a soft-shelled turtle1 and stir-fry it over high heat using sesame oil. Add one cup of autumn sauce and one cup of chicken broth. This recipe most definitely comes from the household of Prefect Wei.
1 One of the most commonly raised and consumed soft-shell turtles is: Pelodiscus sinensis
2 The term shengchao (生炒), can be roughly translated as “raw stir-frying”, may seems like a strange phrase since most people assume that one stir-fries an ingredient directly from its raw form. However, in Chinese cooking it is quite common to par-cook an ingredient by boiling or deep-frying before stir-frying to speed up and ensure even cooking. The par-cooking also limits the amount of juices that exudes from the stir-fried item, which allows for easier maintenance of high wok temperatures and formation of “wok-hei” flavours. I personally find the flavours of raw stir-fried meat dishes to be a bit rougher than their par-cooked cousins, which tends to be “cleaner”. That said either one can be just as delicious.
Choose a large eel, remove its head and tail, and chop it into inch-long1 segments. First, fry them in sesame oil until thoroughly cooked and place them on the side. Take the tender tips of fresh chrysanthemum greens2 and stir-fry them until done, using the oil previously used to cook the eel. Next, place the eel on top of the greens, season, and braise them for one incense stick of time.3 The quantity of chrysanthemum greens used should be about half that of the eel.4
1I know, I know, the Chinese cun (寸) is not related to any of the Western inches. But it reads better.
2Tongcai (蒿菜), which is also known as tonghao (茼蒿) or the “edible chrysanthemum” in English, has a unique flavour that can be strangely addictive once you get used to it.
3Basically, the chrysanthemum greens are to be cooked until brown and mushy. There seems to be this dichotomy in Chinese vegetable cooking: it’s either done quickly over high heat, no more than a few minutes, or it’s deliberately cooked until brown and falling apart.
4By the time you finish reading this, you would have realized this dish is not any sort of fried food in the Western sense (and that appetizing header image is a total lie). Actually, it would be more accurate to call this “eel braised with chrysanthemum greens”. The initial frying is most likely there to form a seared layer on the eel and prevent it from disintegrating during the incense stick’s worth of cooking time. The reason for the name would have be a mystery except for diners in the know.